completed his DPhil at the University of Oxford where he served as Tutor in the Study of Religions in the Faculty of Theology. Presently, Dr Barsam is an Associate Research Professor at Arizona State University where he also serves as the Senior Director for Grants and Research in the Mary Lou Fulton Teachers College. He has also held positions with the Armenian Foreign Ministry and the U.S. Embassy in Armenia. Dr Barsam has written numerous articles on theology and animals, including entries on ‘St Francis of Assisi’ and ‘Albert Schweitzer’ (with Andrew Linzey) in Fifty Key Thinkers on the Environment, edited by J. A. Palmer, (Routledge, 2001), and co-authored with Andrew Linzey, an entry on ‘Cloning of Animals in Genetic Research: Ethical and Religious Issues’ in David N. Cooper (Editor-in-chief) Nature Encyclopaedia of the Human Genome (London: Nature Publishing Group, 2003). His acclaimed book: Reverence for Life: Albert Schweitzer’s Great Contribution to Ethical Thought was published by Oxford University Press in 2009.
holds the Joyce and Edward E Brewer Chair in Applied Ethics at Purdue University. He specialises in animal ethics, more specifically on the issues of animals’ moral status, and the extent, scope, and content of human obligations to nonhuman animals. In addition to working on papers in these areas, Professor Bernstein is in the process of writing a book arguing that both the considerability of the interests of nonhuman animals and the value of the lives of nonhuman animals are as significant as their human counterparts. Professor Bernstein’s books include Fatalism (University of Nebraska Press, 1992), On Moral Considerability (Oxford University Press, 1998), and Without A Tear (University of Illinois Press, 2004).
is a neurologist and public health specialist. She works for the Office of Counterterrorism and Emerging Threats of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). She specializes in biosurveillance, medical ethics and in understanding the crossroads between animal welfare and public health. She has served on several Institutional Review Boards for the protection of human subjects in research. She has published numerous letters and Opinion-Editorial pieces and has been interviewed by major newspapers, scientific journals, and radio and TV news programmes. She also appeared in the television show “30 Days” produced by Morgan Spurlock discussing medical research. She has been published in peer-reviewed journals including Lancet, Pediatrics, Reviews in the Neurosciences and the American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Dr. Akhtar’s recently published book, Animals and Public Health. Why treating animals better is critical to human welfare, examines how the treatment of animals impacts human health. The book covers a diverse array of topics including infectious disease epidemics, domestic violence, the health consequences of environmental degradation and the effectiveness and safety of medical research. The book reveals how many of our most urgent and pressing public health issues are connected with the treatment of animals. Further information about her book can be found at her webpage: www.ayshaakhtar.com.
is Assistant Professor of Humanities at the American University in Dubai, United Arab Emirates. In July 2013, she was Visiting Fellow at Harris Manchester College, Oxford, and a participant in the College’s Summer Research Institute. She earned a BA and an MPhil in art history from the University of California, Irvine and the University of St. Andrews, respectively, and a DPhil from the University of Oxford for her thesis considering Maurice Merleau-Ponty’s theory of embodiment, in which the case of non-human (animal) embodiment receives significant attention. As an educator, her teaching runs the gamut of the history of philosophy, although the areas phenomenology, existentialism, and normative and applied ethics are of special interest. As a researcher, her current scholarship explores the many intersections between ethics, religious discourse and the status of animals in multi-faith societies and in particular, the diverse societies of the Gulf region in the Middle East. Recent papers include ‘Animals, cognition and sentience: reconsidering various anthropocentric views of sentient Being’ (proceedings of the COGNITIO conference, University of Québec at Montréal, July 2011), and ‘Birds of a Feather: addressing the challenges of animal rights dialogue within multi-faith societies’(Fourth International Conference on Religion and Spirituality in Society, forthcoming, April 2014).
is Senior Research Scientist at Cruelty Free International. He received his degree in Genetics and PhD in viral genetics from Newcastle University in the 1990s. He has evaluated the scientific validity and human relevance of animal models in biomedical research and drug/product testing. In addition, Dr Bailey has reviewed the limitations of using nonhuman primates and other animals in various fields of research, including the testing of substances that can cause birth defects and cancer; the use of chimpanzees and other nonhuman primates in various forms of medical research including HIV/AIDS, cancer and hepatitis; the use genetically modified animals to research diseases such as cystic fibrosis, Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s, among others; and the use of dogs, monkeys and other species in pre-clinical testing of new human drugs. He has authored several substantial scientific petitions and submissions of evidence to a variety of British, European and U.S. inquiries into the validity of animal research, and nonhuman primate research in particular, and has taken part in many debates on animal research both in public and in the political arena, at the UK, European, Belgian and Italian parliaments.
is Professor of Administrative Law and Administration at the Faculty of Law, Josip Juraj Strossmayer University in Osijek, Croatia. Apart from teaching administrative law and administration, he also teaches the first graduate course in Croatia in Animal Law. He is the Dean of Faculty of Law since 2014 and a member of University Senate. He was the President (2012 – 2016) of the European Network of Training Organizations for Local and Regional Authorities (ENTO). Professor Bakota is the member of Group of Independent Experts for European Charter for Local Self-Government within the Council of Europe, and has been appointed member of Croatian Parliament’s Committee for Local and Regional Self-Government. His main research interests are local and regional government, public administration, animal law and welfare. He has been volunteering in for an animal shelter in Osijek for many years, and has taken part in an analysis of domestic and international legal documents concerning animal law and welfare.
is Honorary Senior Lecturer in Pathology at University College, London, a Consultant to the Royal Free Hospital, and Coroner’s pathologist for North London and the City of London. He studied comparative embryology at Queen Mary College, London, trained as a medical historian at the Welcome Institute in London. Dr Bates is the author of various books and articles on the history of anatomy and embryology, including The Anatomy of Robert Knox (Sussex Academic Press, 2010), which stimulated his interest in transcendentalism and in medical opposition to experimentation on animals. Ongoing research interests include virtue ethics, antivivisection hospitals, and alternative medicine. He is currently writing a history of antivivisection and medicine for the Palgrave Macmillan Animal Ethics Series.
is Adjunct Professor at the Department of Philosophy at Duquesne University and also Adjunct Professor at the Department of Philosophy at Chatham College, Pittsburgh. She was formerly lecturer at West Virginia University Department of Humanities, Philosophy and Religious Studies. In 2006, she completed her doctorate at Duquesne University with a dissertation on ‘Kantian Meadows: A Just Nursing Home Grounded in the Categorical Imperative’. She has taught courses on Logic, Biomedical Ethics, Feminism, Business Ethics, and the Philosophy of Law. Dr Bjalobok’s research interests are in applied ethics in general and the animal question in particular. She is especially concerned with our moral obligation to ageing and ill non-human animals with whom we have shared our lives. Her current book project is The Barn (based on her own experience of caring for rescued and homeless animals) which examines all the animals that live there, their relationships with each other, and with her as primarily the caregiver and food source. The goal is to apply different philosophical perspectives on friendship and other relations to the relationships that the animals share. She also intends to critically examine the society at the barn in relation to Plato’s idea of the just city (simple city).
is Senior Lecturer in Animal Law at Liverpool John Moores University. He was one of the first academics in the world to introduce Animal Law into the higher education law degree curriculum. His Animal Law module, introduced with Dr Debbie Legge in 1994, was a pioneering development. To date, over 1,000 law students have studied this unique undergraduate module which, unusually in law, took the approach of analysing law through the prism of sustainability and the philosophy of animal rights. Whereas his course was originally one of only two or three such courses, there are now over 120 worldwide. Simon was the lead-author of Law Relating to Animals (Cavendish, 1997), which was written to support his legal education development work. However, it has become recognised world-wide as a leading text in the area and is widely cited by academics and animal welfare groups alike, particularly in relation to the historical development of law relating to animals. A long-awaited second edition is in preparation. Simon’s current research interests lie in the area of using the study of Animal Law as a vehicle for sustainability teaching in legal education.
is an Associate Professor at the Australian National University College of Law, and a Buddhist monk ordained into the Tibetan tradition of His Holiness the Dalai Lama. He teaches and researches in the areas of Competition Law, Consumer Protection Law and Animal Law and is a Senior Fellow of the Higher Education Academy. Alex has published leading texts in all three areas of law, and his PhD thesis investigated the potential for Competition and Consumer Policy to benefit farm animals. His text Animal Law in Australia: An Integrated Approach (LexisNexis Butterworths, 2012) is one of Australia’s first Animal Law textbooks studied by students of Animal Law both in Australia and internationally. As a Buddhist monk, Alex has a particular interest in the relationship between the world’s religions and animals and has regularly appeared in the Australian print and television media commenting on this relationship. In addition to privately teaching meditation and Buddhist philosophy, Alex is currently working on a second PhD through Monash University in the discipline of Comparative Theology. His thesis is exploring the way seekers integrate and progress through Christian and Buddhist Spiritual Paths.
is Dean of the Center for Anglican Theology in Orlando, Florida, USA. She also serves as the Professor of Sacramental Theology, and is currently working toward developing a Diaconate Training Curriculum. She has published book reviews in the Evangelical Quarterly, devotional articles for Zondervan, and two monographs: Pet Prayers, which is a book of prayers for personal and pastoral use, and A Scriptural Theology of Eucharistic Blessings, which is a seminary textbook for Eucharistic Theology. She is a member of the IBR/SBL, including a presented and published article in the area of Hermeneutics. She teaches the online Hermeneutics Course for MDiv students of Olivet University. Dr Bubbers ongoing research interests include: Christological Spiritual Formation, Hermeneutical Methods, Sacramental Theology, and Animal Ethics. The focus of an upcoming research project will be a biblical theology of the ontology of animal souls, providing a resource for seminaries to equip pastors with a solid biblical basis for teaching that animals do go to heaven, and to equip pastors to prioritize animal welfare and provide pastoral care to carer of companion animals. Dr Bubbers received her MDiv from Regent University, DAS from Virginia Theological Seminary, DMin from Reformed Theological Seminary, and PhD from the London School of Theology. She was ordained an Anglican Priest in January, 1995. She has served as the pastor of three churches, as a University Chaplain, and is currently involved with the Anglican church-plant in Celebration, FL.
is a Lecturer of Law at the University of Essex and Director of the University’s Animal Welfare and Wildlife Law undergraduate programme. He was awarded a LLB in 2002, and a PhD in 2009 from the University of Essex for his research into the manner in which international trade restrictive measures can be employed in the fight against the effects of high seas fishing practices that impact upon marine dependant species, and published, in 2011, his first book on this subject, Market Denial and International Fisheries Regulation: The Targeted and Effective Use of Trade Measures Against the Flag of Convenience Fishing Industry (Brill/Martinus Nijhoff Publishers). He has published numerous articles on the subject of animal protection law, including most recently, ‘Developing a Common Law of Animal Welfare’ (Springer, 2011), ‘The Aggregation of Suffering in the Regulatory Context: Scientific Experimentation, Animals and Necessity’ (Ius Publicum, 2013) and ‘The International Regulation of the Food Market: Precedents and Challenges’ (Wageningen Academic Publishers, 2013).
is an Associate Professor at Griffith University, Australia. She is a linguist and a legal scholar. She was educated in China and Australia in both linguistics and law. Currently, she is Deputy Editor of the International Journal for the Semiotics of Law and has published extensively in the areas of legal language, legal theory, legal translation, and philosophical and linguistic analysis of Chinese law and legal culture. Some of her books include Chinese Law: A Language Perspective (Ashgate, 2004), Translating Law with a Foreword by Justice Kirby of the High Court of Australia (Multilingual Matters, 2007), and joint editor of Interpretation, Law and the Construction of Meaning (Springer, 2006). For the past few years, she has been researching and teaching animal law. Her latest book is Dongwu fei wu (Animals are not things: Animal law in the West) with a Preface by Peter Singer (China Law Press, 2007). Currently, she is writing about the place of animals in Chinese philosophy, culture and law, and is co-authoring a book on animal law for Chinese law students. She has also been promoting the research and teaching of animal ethics and animal law in Chinese law schools and arguing for the reconsideration of human and nonhuman animal relationships as an intellectual and ethical concern in China. She is currently also writing a book in English on animal law in the Australian context for the law publisher Thomson.
is Senior Lecturer of English Literature at the English and German Department of the University of Granada, Spain. She holds a PhD in English Literature (cum laude with distinction) and her research interest focuses on studying the relationship between human culture and other-than-human nature as presented in literature and other artistic discourses. She regularly participates in national and international forums on ecocriticism and is the author of Fantasía, épica y utopia en The Lord of the Rings: análisis temático y de la recepción (Servicio de publicaciones de la Universidad de Granada, 1997), and co-editor of Beyond the Veil of Familiarity: C.S. Lewis (1898-1998) (Peter Lang, 2001). Her most recent publication is “Another Cassandra’s Cry”: Mary Wollstonecraft’s “Universal Benevolence” as Ecofeminist Praxis”. Feninismo/s 22: 225-249. Margarita is a scholar in the Human-Animal Studies programme of the Animal and Society Institute, and of the European Association for the Study of Culture, Literature and the Environment. She was a member of the association’s advisory board from 2008 to 2012, and managing co-editor of its journal Ecozon@ from its foundation in 2009 till 2014.
is Professor of Law at Pace Law School, where he teaches in the fields of animal law, environmental law, and property and also directs the Brazil-American Institute for Law and the Environment (BAILE). He serves on the board of the Animal Legal Defense Fund (ALDF) and is also the Class of 1946 Distinguished Visiting Professor of Environmental Law at Williams College, and a Visiting Professor of Law at the Federal University of Bahia, Brazil. He speaks and writes frequently on animal law and policy as well as many other topics within environmental law and environmental and cultural studies. In addition to several books and many articles on topics ranging from food ethics to water as cultural signifier to climate change and factory farms, Professor Cassuto is also the founder and principal contributor to the Animal Blawg (www.animalblawg.wordpress.com), a blog on animal law, ethics, and policy. In 2012, Professor Cassuto was honoured with a Lifetime Achievement Award at the Third World Congress on Bioethics and Animal Rights held in Recife Brazil.
is an Associate Professor of English and Cultural Studies at the University of British Columbia (Okanagan), Canada. A scholar in the history of ideas of the nineteenth century, as well as a life-long animal rights advocate, her research has turned towards the ethical obligations that humans have towards their non-human counterparts. Her forthcoming collection of essays, to which she is a contributor, is entitled Animal Subjects: An Ethical Reader in a Posthuman World (Wilfrid Laurier University Press), and is concerned with the lag in the field of Cultural Studies where critiques of racism, sexism(s) and classism have radically changed the face of the humanities and social sciences, but which have also historically withheld the question of ethical treatment from non-human animals. In this regard, she organised the first panel (‘The Question of the Animal: Why Now?’) of its kind at the Canadian Association of Cultural Studies to critique the division between human and non-human animals in this field. She is developing an upper division undergraduate course on this same question and participating in the ‘Nature matters, materiality, and the more-than-human in cultural studies of the environment’ conference in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Her research aims to call into question the boundaries that divide the animal kingdom from humanity, focusing on the medical, biological, cultural, philosophical, and ethical concerns between non-human animals and ourselves. A long-time member of People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA), and as a scholar, she works to end animal suffering in factory farming, product testing, and laboratory experimentation, as well in zoos, rodeos, circuses, and public aquariums.
is Professor of Philosophy at the University of Pennsylvania. His main interests are in seventeenth and eighteenth century philosophy, especially Kant and the rationalists. He also regularly co-teaches an undergraduate course on the “The Ethics of Eating” which was recently converted into a Massive Online Open Course (MOOC) on the EdX platform. The first edition of the course enrolled almost 14,000 students from over 130 countries (https://www.edx.org/course/ethics-eating-cornellx-phil1440x). He is co-editor (with Matthew Halteman and Terence Cuneo) of Philosophy Comes to Dinner: Arguments About the Ethics of Eating (Routledge, 2015) (www.amazon.com/Philosophy-Comes-Dinner-Arguments-Ethics/dp/0415806836/) and is a contributor to the Oxford Handbook of Food Ethics.
is a Professor of Philosophy at Salisbury University in Maryland, where she teaches a wide variety of courses related to animals, feminism, the history of ethics, human nature, modern philosophy and logic. She is especially interested in questions of animal ethics as they relate to fundamental questions about the nature and boundaries of morality, and has written on the roles of justice and care in human moral relations to non-human animals and on questions about human-animal friendship and animal moral agency. Her publications include a book on feminist ethics, Care, Autonomy, and Justice: Feminism and the Ethic of Care (Westview, 1996), and a number of articles on animals and ethics appearing in journals such as Between the Species and the Journal of Animal Ethics, and in anthologies such as The Feminist Care Tradition in Animal Ethics (Columbia University Press, 2007).
is Associate Professor and Chair of Philosophy at the New School for Social Research in New York, where she is also a member of the Liberal Studies Department and founding co-director of the graduate program in Gender and Sexuality Studies. She is a moral philosopher with wide-ranging interests. Her writing addresses issues in normative and meta-ethics, moral psychology, philosophy and literature, the philosophy of Wittgenstein, social epistemology, feminist theory and cognitive disability. Questions about animals and ethics have been a prominent concern of her teaching and research since she was a graduate student in philosophy at the University of Pittsburgh. She is the author of Beyond Moral Judgment (Harvard, 2007), and also a co-editor of The New Wittgenstein (Routledge, 2000), a co-editor of Reading Cavell (Routledge, 2005) and the editor of Wittgenstein and the Moral Life: Essays in Honor of Cora Diamond (MIT, 2006). Her most recent book—Inside Ethics: On the Demands of Moral Thought (Harvard, 2016)—explores how human beings and animals enter moral thought, contributing simultaneously to ongoing practical debates about the moral standing of animals and about the moral standing of cognitively disabled human beings. She is currently working on a book, Moral Visibility, that continues her engagement with animals and cognitive disability—and that also builds on her work on gender—now with reference to the fact that, historically, many forms of racist, gender-based and ableist bias have functioned in part by means of invidious comparisons to animals.
is an Associate Professor in the Department of Visual Arts at Brock University. She is also a Faculty Affiliate in Brock’s Social Justice and Equity Studies graduate programme and a founding member of the Social Justice Research Institute at Brock. She is the author of Manufacturing National Park Nature: Photography, Ecology, and the Wilderness Industry of Jasper (UBC Press) and the co-editor (with Kirsty Robertson) of Imagining Resistance: Visual Culture and Activism in Canada (Wilfrid Laurier University Press). Her latest book project, ‘Do Not Refuse to Look at These Pictures’: Visual Culture and Animal Advocacy, 1870-1914, is under contract with Penn State University Press. She is the curator of an exhibition called “Be Kind: The Visual History of Humane Education” which she developed for The Animal Museum. In addition to publishing in academic venues, she has also written several columns on the role of art in animal advocacy for Our Hen House. She has just launched a new multimedia project with Jo-Anne McArthur of We Animals called Unbound: Women on the Front Lines of Animal Advocacy.
is Professor of Philosophy at the University of Seattle. He is the author of fifteen scholarly books, several of which deal with the topic of animal rights: The Philosophy of Vegetarianism (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1984) could more appropriately be titled ‘Ancient Philosophical Vegetarianism’ in that it deals with ancient Greek philosophy and the status of non-human animals; Hartshorne and the Metaphysics of Animal Rights (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1988) argues for animal rights in the context of process or neo-classical philosophy of religion; Babies and Beasts: The Argument from Marginal Cases (Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1997) deals with the issue of moral patiency as it relates to both non-human animals and non-rational human beings. About one-third of another book deals with animal rights: Not Even a Sparrow Falls: The Philosophy of Stephen R. L. Clark (East Lansing: Michigan State University Press, 2000). The stance in philosophy of religion that underlies much of his work in animal rights is detailed in Rethinking the Ontological Argument: A Neoclassical Theistic Response (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2006). Recent articles on the topic of animal rights include: ‘Is the Argument from Marginal Cases Obtuse?’ in the Journal of Applied Philosophy 23 (2006): 223-232, and ‘Whitehead and Non-human Animal Rights’, forthcoming.
is Professor of Law at Michigan State University College of Law. Over the past thirty years, Professor Favre has written several articles and books dealing with animal issues, including such topics as animal cruelty, wildlife law, the use of animals for scientific research, the ethics of the respectful use of animals, and international control of animal trade. His books include the case book Animal Law: Welfare, Interest, and Rights (Second edition), Animal Law and Dog Behavior, and International Trade in Endangered Species. He introduced and has developed the concept of “Living Property” in a number of law review articles over the past decade. He also has presented to international audiences on a wide assortment of animal topics. He was a primary organiser in the two global animal law conferences that have been held, the most recent being in 2014 in Barcelona. He created, and is editor-in-chief of, the largest animal legal web resource in the world, www.animallaw.info. He was a founding officer of the Animal Legal Defense Fund in 1983 and stayed on the Board for 22 years, serving as President of the Board for the last two of those years. Presently, he is the a Vice Chair of the American Bar Association/TIPS Committee on Animal Law, and in 2012 was chair of the AALS Animal Law Committee. Now residing on a farm in lower Michigan, Professor Favre shares his space with sheep, chickens, and the usual assortment of dogs and cats.
is Professor of Sociology and Chair of the Department of Sociology, Criminal Justice, and Women’s Studies at the University of South Carolina Upstate where he has taught since 1988. He is the past Chair of the Section on Animals and Society of the American Sociological Association. In 2010, he was selected as a Fellow of the Institute for Human-Animal Connection at the University of Denver’s Graduate School of Social Work. Dr Flynn serves on the editorial boards of both Society & Animals and the Journal of Animal Ethics, and served from 2005 to 2010 on the editorial board of Anthrozoos. In addition, he is on the editorial boards of the Palgrave Macmillan Animal Ethics Book Series and the Brill Human-Animal Studies Book Series. In 2001, his Animals and Society course was chosen as the ‘Best New Animals and Society Course’ by the Humane Society of the United States, and was featured on “The Osgood File” on CBS radio. Dr. Flynn has written numerous articles and chapters on animal abuse and its relationship to family violence, including ‘A Sociological Analysis of Animal Abuse’, in Frank Ascione’s (ed.) The International Handbook of Animal Abuse and Cruelty: Theory, Research, and Application (Purdue University Press, 2008) and ‘Women Battering, Pet Abuse and Human-Animal Relations’ in The Link between Animal Abuse and Human Violence (Sussex Academic Press, 2009), edited by Andrew Linzey. He is also the editor of one of the first anthologies in human-animal studies, Social Creatures: A Human and Animal Studies Reader (Lantern Books, 2008). Dr. Flynn’s most recent book is Understanding Animal Abuse: A Sociological Analysis (Lantern Books, 2012), in which he examines the social and cultural factors related to animal abuse and its connection to human violence and proposes recommendations for policy, professionals, and future research.
is Professor of Politics, and Head of the Department of Politics, at the University of Leicester. He has previously taught at the Universities of Exeter and Buckingham. He has published widely on the politics and philosophy of animal rights. His major publications are Political Animals (Macmillan, 1998); Animals, Politics and Morality (Manchester University Press, 2004, second edition); The Political Theory of Animal Rights (Manchester University Press, 2005), and Animal Ethics (Polity, 2005). The focus of Professor Garner’s principal research interest has been on the moral relationship between humans and animals, particularly from the perspective of political philosophy. This has involved documenting the neglect or dismissal of the concept of animal rights in the liberal tradition of political thought, defending animal rights from within the liberal tradition and exploring the relationship between animal protection and other political traditions. He is currently embellishing this work by seeking to develop a viable liberal-based theory of justice for animals.
is Associate Professor of New Testament and English literature at Providence University College in Manitoba, Canada where he regularly teaches a course on animals and the Bible. Among other things, he writes about the reception of the Bible in literature and popular music, returning often to the poetry and lyrics of Bob Dylan. His most recent book, Eden’s Other Residents: The Bible and Animals (Cascade, 2014), offers strategies for reading the prophets in light of contemporary ethical concerns. It also looks for wisdom in later creative writers engaging animal compassion themes, among them William Bartram, Anne Brontë, Woody Guthrie, and Timothy Findley. His current work includes an examination of animals in the writings of C. S. Lewis.
is the co-ordinator of the Centre for Research on Ethics (CRE), located in Quebec, Canada. Dr Giroux is a member of the Quebec Bar and holds a Masters in Law with a thesis on the reform of the Criminal Code of Canada dealing with cruelty to animals. She also holds a doctorate in philosophy from Université de Montréal with a dissertation on the necessity of granting legal fundamental individual rights to all sentient beings. Dr Giroux has given many presentations on animal ethics and taught a seminar on that subject at Université de Sherbrooke, to which she is affiliated as Adjunct Professor. Among her publications are “Le droit à la liberté des animaux sensibles” (Autrement, 2015) and “Des droits légaux fondamentaux pour tous les êtres sensibles” (Klesis, 2010). She currently has several articles – including “Animals Do Have an Interest in Liberty” (Journal of Animal Ethics) – and a book pending publication.
is a practising Barrister and a member of Exchange Chambers in Liverpool and Manchester. She was called to the Bar in 2001 by the Honourable Society of Lincoln’s Inn and began her career working predominantly in the field of Criminal Law. Her practice developed and she now specialises in the areas of Personal Injury and Employment Law. She maintains a keen interest in Animal Law and is a member of the Association of Lawyers for Animal Welfare. Before pursuing her vocation as a Barrister – and gaining her Diploma in Law at City University, London – Laura-Jane studied for a BA Honours Degree in Philosophy and Theology at Mansfield College, University of Oxford. Her passion for enhancing the ethical status of animals motivated her undergraduate dissertation entitled: ‘Animal Rights and Human Morals’. Laura-Jane’s paper critically examines The Rights of an Animal written by the Oxford Scholar and Bodleian Librarian, Edward Byron Nicholson in 1879. She places Nicholson’s pioneering work within the context of the emerging Humanitarian and Zoophily movements of the nineteenth century and considers the adequacy of his theoretical arguments in relation to the practical moral questions which he raises.
is Assistant Professor of Philosophy at Calvin College in Grand Rapids, Michigan. He holds a PhD in philosophy from the University of Notre Dame, and has published in the fields of 20th century European Philosophy and Animal Ethics. His work in the former discipline has appeared, among other places, in Continental Philosophy Review, Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews, and The Philosophical Review. In Animal Ethics, Professor Halteman’s research has focused primarily on the importance of moral concern for animals in religious traditions, especially on the spiritual disciplinary prospects of exercising this concern through the daily practice of compassionate eating. His booklet Compassionate Eating as Care of Creation was recently published by the Humane Society of the United States (HSUS) and will serve as an integral component of a new national initiative – HSUS Animals and Religion – that seeks to promote concern for animals among religious audiences. Professor Halteman’s animal ethics and activism course, ‘Peaceable Kingdom: Transforming Our Relationships With Animals’, was recently honoured with the 2007 Animals and Society Course Award for Innovation. His guiding aspiration is to produce work that facilitates fruitful interaction between scholars and activists for the purpose of engendering well-researched, well-argued public education on the moral standing of animals.
is Professor of Neuroscience and Pathology at the University of California, San Diego. He received his Bachelor of Arts degree in English Literature in 1974 from North Central College in Naperville IL, and was awarded a Medical Degree in 1977 from Loyola University Stritch School of Medicine in Maywood, IL. Following an internship in Psychiatry at Loyola in Maywood, he spent 4 years in combined Anatomic and Clinical pathology training, also at Loyola. He followed this with 3 years of Neuropathology residency at Emory University in Atlanta, GA, and then went to UCSD for a two year fellowship in Geriatric Neuropathology and Dementia. After an additional year of surgical pathology fellowship at William Beaumont Hospital in Royal Oak, Michigan, Dr Hansen joined the faculty at UCSD School of Medicine in the Departments of Neurosciences and Pathology in 1988. Dr Hansen’s research remains focused on the pathology and pathogenesis of dementing illnesses, in particular Lewy body diseases and Alzheimer disease in which his work is very well known. He lead the neuropathology core of the Alzheimer Disease Research Center (ADRC) based in the UCSD Department of Neurosciences for 25 years. Dr Hansen is also an attending on the clinical neuropathology service at UCSD working with neurosurgeons and neuro-oncologists on brain tumor diagnosis and treatment. Professor Hansen has been a longstanding critic of the infliction of suffering on animals in scientific research. He is author of scores of scientific publications, and his work on animal ethics includes: ‘An analysis of animal research ethics committee memberships at American institutions’, Animals 2, 68-75, 2012; ‘Institution animal care and use committees need greater ethical diversity’, Journal of Medical Ethics 39, 188-190, 2013; ‘Noxious groupthink: The Chronicle Review’, The Chronicle of Higher Education, Section B, B6-B8, November 12 2010, and ‘Primate studies: Hear the public`s views’ (letter to editor) Nature 484, 167, April 12, 2012.
is a member of common room and former Supernumerary Fellow of Wolfson College, Oxford, and Honorary Professor at the Institute of Archaeology at University College, London. He was recently Visiting Lecturer in Roman Art at the Institute of Archaeology, University of Oxford. Professor Henig has written numerous books, including: The Art of Roman Britain (new edition 1995), Roman Oxfordshire (2000), Alban and St Albans: Roman and Medieval Architecture, Art and Archaeology (2001), and The Heirs of King Verica: Culture and Politics in Roman Britain (2002). He has also published major catalogues of Roman Sculpture for the British Academy (The Cotswold Region (1993) and North West Midlands (2003) with London and the South East in preparation, and on Roman gems, including with A. MacGregor, Catalogue of the Engraved Gems in the Ashmolean Museum II. Roman (Archaeopress, 2004). From 1985 to 2007, he was Editor of the Journal of the British Archaeological Association, which specialises in Medieval art and architecture. In 2007, he was presented with a Festschrift: Pagans and Christians – from Antiquity to the Middle Ages (edited by Lauren Adams Gilmour) on his 65th birthday. Professor Henig was trained for the ministry at St Stephen’s House, Oxford, and was recently ordained as a priest in the Church of England, and serves in the Osney Benefice in West Oxford. He is Vice-President of the Anglican Society for the Welfare of Animals.
was educated both in Germany and in South Africa, where he was completed his PhD in the Department of Philosophy, University of the Witwatersrand. After working as a professional musician for several decades, he joined the Wits School of Education in a full-time capacity in 2002. He is an Associate Professor, teaching philosophy of education, ethics, social and political philosophy, epistemology, philosophy of science, logic and critical thinking, all with a strongly educational focus. He has published extensively since 2004, including a book entitled The moral status and rights of animals (Porcupine Press, 2010). Other animal-related publications include ‘Rethinking humane education’ (Ethics and Education 4/2, 2009); ‘Animal liberation: Terrorism or civil disobedience?’ (SA Public Law 27/1, 2012), ‘Animal sacrifice’ (in A. Linzey, ed., The global guide to animal protection (University of Illinois Press, 2013), and ‘Children and other animals: The possibility and promise of animal rights education’ (Philosophy of Education/ Russia 7, 2014: 157-171). Apart from animal rights, his research interests include African philosophy (of education), indigenous knowledge (indigenous science, ethnomathematics, ethnomusicology), as well as humane and environmental education. He has recently published Animals and African Ethics in the Animal Ethics Series for Palgrave MacMillan.
is Associate Professor of Marketing at Chung-Ang University, Seoul. She received a PhD from Imperial College, University of London, and an M.A. from Reading University. She worked as a research fellow at Leeds University, and an Assistant Professor at Chonnam National University. She teaches and researches in the areas of consumer behaviour, voluntary simplifiers, anti-consumerism, ethical consumption (in particular, ethical consumer behaviour including animal consumption ethics), and social business. Her current project includes the relationships between consumers’ moral emotions and animal ethics. She has published her academic papers in internationally renowned academic journals, including Journal of Business Ethics, Sustainability, Science, Technology and Human Values, Science Communication, and Psychology and Marketing. She serves as an Editorial board member of Social Business, and participates in several environmental and ethical academic associations.
teaches art history in the Department of Visual Arts at University of Michigan-Flint. She completed her PhD in American Studies from Michigan State University. Her dissertation, Spiritual Autobiography in Puritan Portraiture, embraced the fields of European and American art, and religion. Once a curatorial fellow at Historic Deerfield, she has held internships at Michigan State’s Graduate Museum Program where she published essays for MSGS, Michigan Stained Glass Census, a statewide survey of architectural stained glass. Recent publications include, “Increase Mather: A Pre-Millennial Portrait during the Revocation of the Massachusetts Charter” in American Literature and the New Puritan Studies, edited by Carla Mulford and Bryce Traister (Cambridge University Press, forthcoming). Her research explores the intersections between art, animals, and religious discourse within the development of new scientific inquiry in the early modern period (1600-1815). Recent papers include “Fur and Fashion: Ethical Decisions in Puritan Dress” in Eco-Critical Theory and Practice (forthcoming). Her future projects are devoted to exploring the complexities of the human-animal relationship in European and American Art in which she plans on making a significant contribution to the field of art history, religion, and the environmental humanities.
is an Assistant Professor in the Department of History at the National Cheng Kung University in Taiwan. She received her PhD from King’s College, Cambridge and was formerly a Research Fellow at Wolfson College, Cambridge. In her PhD entitled “Mobilizing Traditions in the Animal Defence Movement in Britain, 1820-1920″, she explored the ways in which the animal defence movement in Britain interacted with and drew upon the major intellectual and cultural traditions in Victorian society, such as Christianity, political radicalism, evolutionism, natural history and literary traditions. She has published in journals such as Society and Animals, Journal of Animal Ethics, The New History (Taiwan), Concentric: Literary and Cultural Studies (Taiwan) and EurAmerica: A Journal of European and American Studies (Taiwan) and has written a policy paper on “The animal cause and its greater traditions” (2004) for the History and Policy Website. She has edited and introduced William Drummond’s Rights of Animals and Man’s Obligation to Treat Them with Humanity (1838) for the Mellen Animal Rights Library edited by Professor Rod Preece. She is also the Chinese translator of Professor Andrew Linzey’s Animal Gospel (1999). The Chinese edition was published by the China University Press of Politics and Law in 2005 and in Taiwan by the Yong Wang Press in 2006. Her research and teaching interests include the history of human-animal relations, modern British history and western historiography. She is especially interested in the historical connections between people’s concern for humans and for other animals and she is currently doing research on late nineteenth-century political radicalism.
is Senior Vice President for Forensic Sciences and Anti-Cruelty Projects of the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (ASPCA) a post he has held since 2005. He has degrees in psychology and biology from Wesleyan University in Connecticut and a doctorate in psychology from Washington University in St. Louis. He was Assistant Professor in the psychology departments of the State University of New York at Stony Brook and Washington University. He joined the staff of the Humane Society of the United States in 1984 where he held a variety of positions including Vice President for Research and Educational Outreach. His professional work has included ethological studies of wolves, the health benefits of keeping companion animals and the psychology of kindness and cruelty to animals. He has facilitated hundreds of workshops to coordinate the formation of coalitions against violence that seek to bring together the resources of professionals in diverse fields. His efforts to increase awareness of the connection between animal abuse and other forms of violence were profiled in the 1999 BBC documentary “The Cruelty Connection”. He has served on the Boards of Directors of several groups including the Center for Respect for Life and Environment, Defenders of Wildlife, the William and Charlotte Parks Foundation for Animal Welfare and the International Veterinary Forensic Sciences Association.
Dr Lockwood co-edited Cruelty to Animals and Interpersonal Violence (Purdue University Press, 1998), and co-authored Forensic Investigation of Animal Cruelty: A Guide for Veterinary and Law Enforcement Professionals (Humane Society Press, 2006). He also authored Prosecuting Animal Cruelty Cases: Opportunities for Early Response to Crime and Interpersonal Violence (ASPCA, 2006) published by the American Prosecutors Research Institute, and Dogfighting Toolkit for Law Enforcement: Addressing Dogfighting in Your Community (2011), published by the U.S. Department of Justice.
is Associate Professor of Philosophy at California Polytechnic State University. He is currently serving as Editor of Between the Species a philosophical journal on animal issues. Dr Lynch has published articles on animal consciousness, animal belief, and theodicy and animal pain. His general research areas are in the philosophy of religion, philosophy of mind, and Asian philosophy. Among other topics, Dr Lynch is currently interested in Buddhist perspectives on the moral status of animals. In addition to the American Philosophical Association, he regularly affiliates with the Society for the Study of Ethics and Animals, the Society for Asian and Comparative Philosophy, the Society for Philosophy and Psychology, and the Society for the Study of Philosophy and the Martial Arts.
is Regent’s Professor of English at Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA. He gained his BA in English at the University of Pennsylvania, and his MA, MPhil, and PhD degrees in Literature from Columbia University. His doctoral dissertation (1989) was on “The Language of Modernism”. He is the author of Reading Zoos: Representations of Animals and Captivity (Macmillan and NYU Press, 1998) and Poetic Animals and Animal Souls (Palgrave Macmillan, 2003), and the editor of A Cultural History of Animals in the Modern Age (Berg, 2007). He serves on the editorial boards of Society & Animals and Brill’s Human-Animal Studies book series. He is also an International Associate of the New Zealand Centre for Human-Animal Studies, University of Canterbury. In addition to his scholarship, he has had numerous appearances in popular media on the topic of animals; many of these are linked from his webpage. His interests include, generally, anthrozoology, and more specifically, zoos; cultural representations of animals; ecology, eco-criticism and environmentalism; and cinematic figurations of animals. He is a Patron of the Captive Animals’ Protection Society (UK).
is the Dorothy Jo Barker Endowed Professor of Animal Rights at Drury University and the Director of the Drury University Forum on Animal Rights. In 2012, she established an innovative minor in Animal Studies at the undergraduate level. She directs and participates in a one-of-a kind course on Animal Ethics taught by a team of eight professors, all experts in their prospective fields. In addition, she teaches courses on Animals in Literature and on Animals and Contemporary Issues. While pursuing her doctorate in French literature at the University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill, she spent a year as an exchange student at the École Normale Supérieure, rue d’Ulm in Paris. Dr McEachern has published two books, Deprivation and Power: Eating Disorders in Nineteenth-Century French Literature (Greenwood, 1998) and A Holy Life: The Writings of Saint Bernadette of Lourdes (Ignatius, 2005). In 2007, Bob Barker, a long-time advocate for animals, began providing resources that have allowed Dr McEachern to change the direction of her professional interests. She now devotes herself full-time to the study of animal rights. Dr McEachern takes a particular interest in elephants in captivity.
is a graduate of Princeton Theological Seminary (Master of Divinity) and Drew University (MPhil, PhD). He did his doctoral dissertation on the inter-connections between Edmund Husserl’s phenomenological analyses of experience and meaning and Ludwig Wittgenstein’s Ordinary Language analyses of language use and context. Professor McFarlane later revised and published his dissertation under the title: A Grammar of Fear and Evil: A Husserlian-Wittgensteinian Hermeneutic (Bern, Switzerland: Peter Lang, 1996). In addition to numerous articles and invited papers, Professor McFarlane co-edited (with S. Murrell and D. Spencer) a bestselling university textbook on the Rastafarian Movement: Chanting Down Babylon-The Rastafarian Reader (Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press, 1997). Arising from this publication, he has spoken at over seventeen university campuses and academic conferences dealing with African retentions in Caribbean religions. His recent essay “A Rastafarian Hermeneutic of Animal Care” will be published in the forthcoming Handbook of Religion and Animal Protection. Professor McFarlane taught philosophy, epistemology/metaphysics, ethics, philosophy of language and philosophy of religion at universities in the USA and the Caribbean, in addition to visiting lectures at numerous colleges, including Wooster, Union, Rider, and Denison University. Professor McFarlane was an invited Visiting Fellow at Mansfield College, Oxford University in 1999. He has been the Vice President of the International University of the Caribbean (Montego Bay, Jamaica) since 2006.
is an assistant professor of economics at Hope College in Holland, Michigan. He received his Ph.D. in economics from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. His research has focused on labor economics and education policy, ethics, and theology. His writing about animal ethics has focused on the place of animals in the economy and the integration of ethics with economic analysis. He is currently working on a book titled Animals and Economics which will be included in the Palgrave Macmillan Animal Ethics Series (A. Linzey & P. Cohn, Eds.). This volume explores the central role of economic institutions and policy in determining the place of animals in the economy, and calls for large-scale change in the legal standing of animals. He has also explored animal issues in his work on virtue ethics and in his writing on environmental ethics and property law. His education policy research has focused on homework time and school calendars, and has appeared in several economics journals, including the American Economic Journal: Economic Policy and Economics of Education Review.
is the Director of the Hunterstoun Centre of the University of Fort Hare, South Africa. He gained a doctorate at Rhodes University in Grahamstown, for his dissertation on ‘Discourses and the Oppression of Non-human Animals: A Critical Realist Account’. He has worked in Pathology, Community Health and Education in the U.K., Tanzania, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Malawi, and South Africa where he taught sciences in a township school in Grahamstown. His Masters dissertation at the University of Malawi is titled ‘The Relevance of the Malawian MSCE Science Syllabus to the Lives of Young Malawians’. He gives talks at schools and has made a number of presentations at Rhodes University, where he is a member of the Ethics Committee, and at the Ethics Society of South Africa, as well as publishing ‘Animals and the Discourse of Farming in Southern Africa’ in Society and Animals, Vol. 14, No.1, 2006, 39-59 and ‘Moral Disengagement and Support for Nonhuman Animal Farming’ (forthcoming). He recently organized the Hunterstoun Symposium on Nonhuman Animals, the first of its kind in Southern Africa. His research interests are critical realism, non-human animals, discourses, power in society, genocide, moral disengagement, and alternatives to violence.
is a Brazil-based philosopher, independent researcher and author. He is also Director of the Animal Ethics Department of the Brazilian Vegetarian Society. Naconecy holds a PhD in Philosophy from the Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUCRS) in Porto Alegre, Brazil. His thesis topic was ‘The Life Ethic: Moral Biocentrism and the Concept of Bio-Respect’. Previously, he gained a Master of Philosophy degree at the same university with a thesis on contemporary environmental ethics, and a Bachelor’s degree in Philosophy at the Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS) which included a dissertation on the moral status of the non-human animals. In 2006, he obtained a grant from the Brazilian governmental funding agency to become a Visiting Scholar at the University of Cambridge, UK. Naconecy has present papers at academic conferences in Brazil, Peru, Portugal and Cambridge. In addition to his scholarship, he has numerous appearances in popular media on the topic of applied ethics in Brazil. His publications include a book (in Portuguese) titled Ethics and Animals: a guide to the philosophical arguments (Porto Alegre: Edipucrs, 2006). Research interests include animal ethics and environmental ethics.
is an Australian Research Council DECRA Senior Research Fellow at the Alfred Deakin Institute for Citizenship and Globalisation, Deakin University, Melbourne. Her research has two major foci: one, the nexus between animals and urban planning, and conceptualising frameworks for multispecies-inclusive planning; and two, the implications of India’s cow protectionism discourse, politics and legislations, for the cows and indeed, the animal advocacy movement in India itself. Her work is combines scholarship and advocacy, and she is co-opted member of the Animal Welfare Board of India (AWBI) of the Ministry of Environment, Forest, and Climate Change, Government of India, and an Advisory Board Member of the Visakha Society for the Protection and Care of Animals, India. Yamini also serves as the Treasurer of the Australasian Animal Studies Association (AASA). Her work on animals and development has been published in leading journals including Environment and Planning D, Society and Animals, and Sustainable Development. Her book Religion, Heritage and the Sustainable City: Hinduism and Urbanisation in Jaipur (Routledge) was published in 2015, and an edited volume Religion and Urbanism: Reconceptualising Sustainable Cities in South Asia (Routledge) was published in 2016. Her forthcoming book will offer one of the first empirical critiques of India’s cow protectionism discourse and politics from a critical animal studies standpoint, by examining bovine realities in both sites of production and protection.
is a lecturer in law at the School of Law, National University of Ireland, Galway, where she teaches intellectual property and sociology of law-related subjects at undergraduate and postgraduate levels. She holds a BA in Philosophy and English and a BCL, both from University College Cork. She obtained an LLM by research on socio-legal aspects of the Linux operating system at the University of Warwick in 2002 and also holds a PGCHE from UWE, Bristol. Maureen is also currently pursuing a PhD at the School of Law in the University of Edinburgh in the area of patenting morally controversial biotechnological inventions. Part of the research for the thesis has involved an exploration of the constitutional status and rights of genetically modified human-animal hybrids and chimeras which fall into a lacuna between animal and human rights. She has published in the fields of intellectual property law, technology and policy and property rights and wrote a commentary on the Feminist Judgments: From Theory to Practice (Hart, 2010). She currently supervises a PhD on animal rights and welfare in Ireland. Maureen is the Chairperson of the Vegetarian Society of Ireland – a national charity run entirely by volunteers – and is involved in promoting vegetarianism and veganism throughout Ireland both through academic and social means.
is Professor of Sociology at Kingston University, London and Visiting Fellow at the University of Portsmouth. Professor Peggs has longstanding research interests in critical sociology and social theory. Her current research addresses the persistence of complex inequalities associated with species. The subject of human relationships with nonhuman animals is often neglected in sociology and she has produced a series of publications and conference presentations on this theme, including her book Animals and Sociology, which was published in 2012 in the Palgrave Macmillan Series on Animal Ethics. At the University of Portsmouth she led the research project Veganism: Ethics and Lifestyle. Forthcoming publications in the field include Experiments, Animal Bodies and Human Values (Routledge, forthcoming) and the co-authored Consuming Animals: Ethics, Environment and Lifestyle Choices (Routledge, forthcoming). Professor Peggs is also a social research methods specialist. She is co-editor of two major four volume sets, Observation Methods (SAGE, 2013) and Critical Social Research Ethics (SAGE, 2018).
read Classics at Balliol College, Oxford in the 1980s and took a doctorate in the field of ancient Greek religion. He has published numerous articles and reviews about Greek and Latin language and literature. He has written two books: a monograph entitled Prayer in Greek Religion (OUP, 1997) and an edition with commentary of Homer, Iliad Book I (OUP, 2000). Having taught Classics in the University of Oxford for about ten years, he studied law, qualified as a solicitor and practised in the City of London for five years. He then turned to teaching academic law and has written articles about legal history, land law and the law of charities. He then decided to bring together his interests in history, languages, law and religion by taking a master’s degree in Canon Law at the University of Cardiff. His dissertation, supervised by Professor Norman Doe, concentrated on the exemptions granted to monastic houses from the general canon law in medieval Europe from the earliest times to the Reformation. He presented a paper on Animals in Western Christian Canon Law at the first Annual Oxford Animal Ethics Summer School on Religion and Animal Protection in July 2014. This is due to be published in the forthcoming Handbook of Religion and Animal Protection. Simon is interested in the ways in which historical studies can not only throw light on the past but also explain why people think and act towards animals as they do today.
is Associate Professor for Ethics and Social Thought in the Department of Catholic Theology at Karl-Franzens-University in Graz, Austria, where he has taught since 1992. He was a lecturer at Ruhr-University Bochum in Germany (1984-90), a Fulbright Scholar at The Catholic University of America in Washington, D.C. (2003), a Visiting Professor in the Department of Philosophy at the University of Minnesota (2007) and in the Department of Religious Studies at Gonzaga University, Spokane, USA (academic year 2011/12). His doctoral dissertation dealt with the ethics of civil disobedience (Ziviler Ungehorsam. Aschendorff, 1992), his post-doctoral dissertation (Habilitation) examined the relation of therapeutic self-actualization to the common good (Tanz um das goldene Selbst? Styria, 2001). For a considerable time his research interests have also focused on animal ethics. He is particularly interested in the contribution of various religions to animal protection (cf. his chapter in the book Tierrechte. Eine interdisziplinaere Herausforderung, Harald Fischer, 2007), in particular the ambivalent tradition of the Roman Catholic Church (cf. his chapter in the book Tier – Mensch – Ethik, LIT 2011). He taught courses on animal ethics and animal theology both in Austria and the USA and has voiced his concern for animals in numerous lectures and newspaper articles, on the radio and on TV.
is Assistant Professor at the Drexel University School of Public Health in Philadelphia. He completed his doctorate in veterinary medicine and master’s degree in bioethics at the University of Pennsylvania. He teaches and writes about a number of issues relating to the history and ethics of public health, medicine and science more broadly. Dr Rossi has previously served as a Commissioner’s Fellow at the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, and he also spent numerous years in veterinary clinical practice. Dr Rossi’s interest in animal ethics is wide-ranging, and includes the moral standing of animals, the ethics of animal agriculture and animal research, issues relating to the conceptualization and scientific assessment of animal welfare, the ethics of selective breeding, and veterinary medical ethics. As well, Dr Rossi writes about the ethics of human research, public health ethics, and the ethical dimensions of autism. He has authored numerous book chapters and peer-reviewed articles, with his work appearing in The Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal, The Journal of Medical Ethics, The Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics, Public Health Ethics, The Encyclopedia of Global Bioethics, and The Encyclopedia of Food and Agricultural Ethics.
originally studied mathematical physics but retrained following sociological research at the University of Sussex. He completed his PhD on discourse and change in late modernity at the University of Southampton, and undertook psychotherapy training. He thereafter worked both as a family therapist, and in social science research. He held a Research Fellowship at the University of Southampton, and has taught courses at theological colleges in the UK. He has lectured at universities in the UK and China, and at Regent College, Canada. He gave a keynote address on Postmodernity at the 1993 Leaders Conference of the Lausanne Movement, and co-edited the proceedings, published as Faith and Modernity (Regnum, 1994). His articles, papers and journalism have appeared in a variety of publications including Faith and Thought, Third Way, and Kunstforum International, as well as on-line; a selection may be found on his page on Academia.edu. His Six Modern Myths (IVP, 2000) included discussion of the transformation of animal theology in modernity. His research since has focussed on the archeology of evangelical Christian discourses about animals, and his articles on this have appeared in Third Way, The Kirby Laing Institute for Christian Ethics and elsewhere. Dr Sampson has contributed a chapter on “Humans, Animals and Others” in C. Falke (ed), Intersections in Christianity and Critical Theory (Palgrave, 2010); and to A. Linzey and C. Linzey (eds), A Handbook of Religion and Animal Protection (forthcoming). He is currently writing A Passion for Kindness, a book exploring the evangelical contribution to animal advocacy in the UK from the seventeenth to the nineteenth centuries.
is an Associate Professor of Law at the George Washington University Law School. She received her BS in mechanical engineering (magna cum laude) and JD (Order of the Coif) from the Universityof Southern Californiaand her MS in mechanical engineering from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. She is an inactive member of the California Bar and an active member of the D.C. Bar. Professor Schaffner worked at the law firm of Irell & Manella in Los Angeles California and clerked for the Honourable Marianna Pfaelzer in the Central District of California before coming to GW Law. Professor Schaffner teaches Civil Procedure, Remedies, Sexuality and the Law, and a seminar on Animal Protection Law. She is the faculty advisor to Lambda Law, the GLBT student organisation at GW, and is faculty adviser and editor-in-chief of the American Intellectual Property Law Association Quarterly Journal.
Professor Schaffner directs the GW Animal Law Program which consists of the GW Animal Welfare Project (AWP), a pro bono effort of faculty and students devoted to researching and improving the lives of animal through the law; seminars in animal law; and a student chapter of the Animal Legal Defense Fund (SALDF). She also coordinates the Animal Law Lawyering Project which provides students with outside placements in the animal law field. Additionally, Professor Schaffner has presented on animal law panels at conferences world-wide. Professor Schaffner’s most recent book entitled Introduction to Animals and the Law was published by Palgrave MacMillan in November 2010 as part of their Animal Ethics Series.
Professor Schaffner is a co-author and editor of two books published by the American bar Association: A Lawyer’s Guide to Dangerous Dog Issues and Litigating Animal Law Disputes: A Complete Guide for Lawyers and is author of the chapter “Laws and Policy to Address the Link of Family Violence” in The Link Between Animal Abuse and Humane Violence (Sussex Academic Press, 2009). Professor Schaffner is active in various organizations including: Past Chair, Publications Vice-Chair, and Newsletter Vice-Chair, ABA TIPS Animal Law Committee; Founding Chair of the AALS Section on Animal Law, and a consumer member for the District of Columbia Board of Veterinary Medicine. On a personal note, Professor Schaffner is a volunteer and foster for the Washington Humane Society. She shares her life and home with a magnificent group of felines and Rocky, an African Grey parrot.
is Professor of Pastoral Theology and Spirituality at St. Catherine University in St. Paul, Minnesota, where he has taught graduate and undergraduate students for over thirty years, and administered pastoral ministry, spiritual direction, and master’s degree programmes. He was also instrumental in founding the Wisdom Ways Spirituality Resource Center in St. Paul and was national chairperson of the National Association for Lay Ministry from 1986-1988. A graduate of the University of Notre Dame in South Bend, Indiana, and a former chemical dependency counseller, he did his post-doctoral work at the St. Theosevia Centre of Christian Spirituality in Oxford, England, in the fall of 1988, when he also taught at St. Patrick’s College, Maynooth, Ireland. Dr Sellner is the author of numerous articles and twelve books, including Christian Ministry and the Fifth Step (Hazelden Foundation, 1981), Mentoring: the Ministry of Spiritual Kinship (Cowley Publications, 2002), The Celtic Soul Friend (Ave Maria Press, 2002), Pilgrimage: Exploring a Great Spiritual Practice (Soren Books, 2004), Stories of the Celtic Soul Friends: Their Meaning for Today (Paulist, 2004), Wisdom of the Celtic Saints (Bog Walk Press, 2006), Finding the Monk Within: Great Monastic Values for Today (HiddenSpring, 2008), and The Double: Male Eros, Friendships, and Mentoring—from Gilgamesh to Kerouac (Lethe Press, 2013). Professor Sellner is also a popular national and international speaker on the topics of mentoring, lay leadership, Celtic spirituality, the history of Christian monasticism, men’s issues, Thomas Merton and Zen Buddhism, and animal theology.
is Lecturer in Philosophy at Liverpool Hope University in the Theology, Philosophy and Religious Studies Department. He previously completed his doctoral research on Kierkegaard at Cambridge University. Alongside a number of articles and chapters, his books include Kierkegaard, Language and the Reality of God (Ashgate, 2001), The Inclusive God: Reclaiming Theology for an Inclusive Church, co-authored with Hugh Rayment-Pickard (Canterbury Press, 2006), Radical Orthodoxy: A Critical Introduction (SPCK, 2007), Prayers for an Inclusive Church (Canterbury Press, 2008), Derrida and Theology (Continuum, 2009) and Beyond Human: From Animality to Transhumanism (Continuum, 2012), co-edited with Claire Molloy and Charlie Blake. His research interests include continental philosophy of religion and the significance of philosophical distinctions between humans and animals and between machines and organisms. He is a patron of the Anglican Society for the Welfare of Animals.
is Director of Science at Cruelty Free International . She also acts as Senior Science Advisor to the European Coalition to End Animal Experiments (ECEAE). Dr Taylor manages the scientific output of both organisations, ensuring their call to end animal testing is supported by sound scientific argument. She regularly represents the organisations at international regulatory fora, including the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development in Paris, the European Medicines Agency in London, and the European Chemicals Agency in Helsinki. She has a BSc in Zoology from the University of Sheffield (1998) and a PhD in veterinary behavioural epidemiology from De Montfort University, Leicester (2004). Dr Taylor is now one of Europe’s foremost experts on the scientific, legal and ethical issues regarding the use of animals in testing and the alternatives to it. She has written papers estimating the numbers of animals used in testing worldwide, critiquing the reporting of animal welfare in science papers, and discussing the use of alternatives to animal testing in the areas of cosmetics, neuroscience, drug development and chemicals testing.
is an Instructor in Philosophy and Media Studies at the University of Guelph and the University of Guelph-Humber in Ontario, Canada. She holds a Masters of Philosophy in Environmental Ethics, and a PhD from the University of Waterloo, where she focused on animal minds and animal ethics. Her areas of research include the representation of the animals in the media, animal minds, selfhood, self-awareness and autonomy, animals and environmental ethics, and the conception of animals in Western and non-Western philosophy. She has presented papers on these topics, and is currently writing two books on animals in the media and media ethics. She is also developing a course for the University of Guelph on animals in philosophy, and designs and teaches courses in applied ethics, with a focus on animals and environmental issues. She recently published Animal Ethics and the Autonomous Animal Self (2016) as part of the Palgrave Macmillan Animal Ethics Book Series.
is a Lecturer and a Researcher in Cultural Anthropology at the University of Udine, Italy. After a degree in Humanities at the University of Trieste, Italy, in 1996, she specialised in Social and Cultural Anthropology at the University of Padua, and received her PhD in 2006 for a dissertation on the anthropology of the animal rights movement. Her work was published in 2007 as Diritti Animali. Storia e antropologia di un movimento (Forum Ed.). Dr Tonutti is currently working at the Department of Economics, Society and Territory (University of Udine, Italy) and has carried out ethnographic research in Italy, Switzerland, and Great Britain. Her studies focus on human-animal relationships, new social movements (and particularly animal advocacy as a social and cultural phenomenon), biodiversity and local knowledge, anthropology of food, and epistemological reflections on the human-animal divide in anthropology. She is the author more than 30 articles and the following books: Water and Anthropology (EMI 2007); Manuale di zooantropologia (Meltemi, 2007, with R. Marchesini), and Animali magici (De Vecchi, 2000, with R. Marchesini).
also known as Krishna Kshetra Swami, is a fellow of the Oxford Centre for Hindu Studies and the Dean of Studies at Bhaktivedanta College, Septon, Belgium. As a practicing monk in the Chaitanya Vaishnava tradition of Krishna-bhakti, he has been engaged since 1972 in the study and teaching of Indic cultural and religious ideas and practices (including teaching at the University of Florida and Chinese University of Hong Kong), with an emphasis on comparative-integrative understanding of dharmic traditions and a concern to relate these with contemporary cultures. After completing his DPhil at the University of Oxford with a study of Vaishnava temple liturgical practices and theology (published by Routledge in 2006 as Attending Kṛṣṇa’s Image: Caitanya Vaiṣṇava Mūrti-sevā As Devotional Truth), he has been participating in an extended study of the classical Sanskrit text, the Bhāgavata Purāṇa, of which he is presently completing an abridged translation for Columbia University Press (together with Ravi M. Gupta). Drawing on classical Indic sources, he has written and lectured on concepts of nonviolence and the containment of violence through ritual, and on the application of yoga principles and practices to thought on animal-human relations. In forthcoming work, he seeks to foster and participate in animal studies that draw upon and nourish Indic dharma traditions, including explorations of constructive thought on animal ethics for contemporary Hindu communities.
is an independent consultant biologist and medical scientist, whose current main role is as senior scientific advisor to the Emergent Disease Foundation (UK). Among his numerous qualifications, he holds a postgraduate diploma in medical science, a charter award in biology, and a charter award in science and is a registered European Professional Biologist. Since the early 1980s, he has specialised in reptile biology, welfare and protection, graduating at the Institute of Biology, London, in 1990. Since 2004, he has also specialised in zoonoses (diseases transmittable from non-human-animals to humans), graduating at University Medical School, Leeds. His research interests include reptile behaviour, euthanasia, anatomy, physiology, wildlife biology, ecology, and species and environmental conservation. His interests and work in human medicine involves zoonoses prevention education, epidemiology, primary care management of gastrointestinal disease, fever, and biological strategies in health and disease. Clifford has over 100 publications across his research fields. His major book project Health and Welfare of Captive Reptiles (co-edited with professor Fred Frye and Dr James B Murphy is the world’s leading scientific volume dedicated to reptile welfare. For more than two decades Clifford’s fieldwork has also included high-risk surveys and studies of human use/abuse of animals, conducted often in remote jungles and deserts. Clifford was one of the first and remains one of the few scientists to have SAS-personnel training in survival, infiltration, escape and evasion.
is the Conrad N. Hilton Professor in Business Ethics and Director of the Centre for Ethics and Business at Loyola Marymount University in Los Angeles, California. Professor White received his doctorate in philosophy from Columbia University and taught at Upsala College (1976-89) and Rider University (1989-94) in New Jersey before moving to California in 1994. His publications include five books: Right and Wrong (Prentice Hall, 1988), Discovering Philosophy (Prentice Hall, 1991), Business Ethics (Macmillan, 1993), Men and Women at Work (Career Press, 1994), and In Defense of Dolphins (Blackwell 2007), and numerous articles on topics ranging from sixteenth-century Renaissance humanism to business ethics. For the first twenty years of his career, Professor White specialised in the moral, social and political thought of Sir Thomas More. Since then, he has concentrated on contemporary applied ethics. His most recent research has focused on the philosophical implications – especially the ethical implications – of the scientific research on dolphins. His book on this topic (In Defense of Dolphins: The New Moral Frontier) addresses the ethical issues connected with human/dolphin interaction – in particular, the deaths and injuries of dolphins in connection with the human fishing industry and the captivity of dolphins in the entertainment industry. The book argues that dolphins should be considered nonhuman persons and that the current state of dolphin/human interaction is ethically indefensible. He is currently studying the parallels between defences of slavery two hundred years ago and contemporary defences of the deaths, injuries and captivity of dolphins at the hands of humans. Professor White is a Scientific Adviser to the Wild Dolphin Project, a research organisation studying a community of Atlantic spotted dolphins in the Bahamas. He is also an Ambassador of the United Nations’ Year of the Dolphin programme. He was the 2007 Verizon Visiting Professor of Business, Ethics and Information Technology at the Centre for Business Ethics at Bentley College in Waltham, Massachusetts.
serves as National Coordinator, Discipleship Resource Development for National Ministries, American Baptist Churches, USA. Dr Williams has worked in Christian educational development since 1998. She is interested in the processes by which persons are moved to change long-held beliefs and long-standing practices. She received her EdD from Union Theological Seminary/Presbyterian School of Christian Education in Richmond, Virginia. In her doctoral dissertation, ‘Andrew Linzey’s Animal Theology and the Educational Ministry of the Christian Church: Guidelines for Educating Toward Transformation of the Human/Animal Relationship’, she sought to draw insights from Linzey’s writings and place them alongside the work of transformational educational theorists to outline an effective teaching approach for potentially controversial topics. A second area of interest lies in the development of a creation/creature theology that integrates the biblical witness and bridges the gap between environmentalists and animal proponents. Her publications include: Children Among Us: Foundations in Children’s Ministries, (ed), Louisville: Witherspoon Press, 2003; Children, Poverty, and the Bible, Valley Forge: National Ministries Communications, 2006; ‘Introduction for Parents and Leaders’, Tobee and the Amazing Bird Choir, Louisville: Bridge Resources, 1999; Left Behind: The Facts Behind the Fiction Companion Guide (Valley Forge: Judson Press, 2006); ‘Liberating the Enlightenment: How a Transformed Relationship with Animals Can Help Us Transcend Modernity’, Religious Education, Vol. 98, Winter 2003, 95–107; ‘Please, Don’t Call Me a Vegetarian’, Horizons, Summer 2000, and ‘Sunday School Lessons’, Christian Citizen: Voices for Biblical Justice, Vol. 2, 2004.
is President of the Nonhuman Rights Project, the mission of which is to attain fundamental legal rights for at least some nonhuman animals through litigation and legislation in the United States and throughout the world. He received a BS in Chemistry from the College of William and Mary and a JD from the Boston University School, of Law. He teaches “Animal Rights Jurisprudence” at the Vermont Law School and the Lewis and Clark Law School in the United States, and at the Autonomous University of Barcelona. He has taught “Animal Rights Law” at the Harvard University, University of Miami, St. Thomas and John Marshall Law Schools. He is the author of four books: Rattling the Cage – Toward Legal Rights for Animals (Perseus Books, 2000); Drawing the Line – Science and the Case for Animal Rights (Perseus Books, 2003) Though the Heavens May Fall – The Landmark Trial That Led to the End of Human Slavery (Da Capo Press, 2005), and An American Trilogy – Death, Slavery, and Dominion Along the Banks of the Cape Fear River (Da Capo Press, 2009), as well as numerous law review articles, popular articles, and book reviews. His work is the subject of the Hegedus and Pennebaker /HBO/BBC/ARTE France/VIPRO film, “Unlocking the Cage,” which premiered at the 2016 Sundance Film Festival.
is a Lecturer at Dartmouth College, New Hampshire. His current research focuses on representations of animals and animality in modern literature, visual art, and philosophy. Benvegnù has published essays and articles on issues such as poetry produced in peripheral languages (particularly by multilingual and diglossic communities) and the interactions between aesthetics, history, and nature. He is currently completing a book project on the ethical and aesthetic value of literary animals in the work of the Jewish-Italian writer and Holocaust survivor Primo Levi.
is an independent scholar based in rural West Texas. He holds a BA magna cum laude from Abilene Christian College. After studying Divinity at the University of Edinburgh, he gained a further BA in Theology from the University of Oxford. He received the degree Magister in Artibus Universitatis Oxoniensis in 1974. Mr Blankenship is member of the Cherokee Tribe and is a Charter Member of the National Museum of the American Indian (Cherokee Tribe). In September, 2004, he participated in the inaugural procession on the Mall in Washington, D.C. with the Cherokee tribe at the Grand Opening of the National Museum of the American Indian. He has also supported the Archaeology Conservancy for Native American sites’ preservation, based in Albuquerque, New Mexico. His interest in Native American attitudes to animals led to him presenting on “Restoring Species to the Circle of Life in Native America” at the Summer School of the Oxford Centre for Animal Ethics in 2014, a paper that will be published in the Handbook of Religion and Animal Protection. In addition, he has undertaken ongoing research on animals in the Bible and his The Animals of Deuteronomy 14 and Leviticus 11 is being readied for publication. This work has been undertaken concurrently with research for the first Concordance of Biblical Animals. The focus is on literary analysis, history and identity in translation, with ethical perspectives related to the New Testament. Mr Blankenship is a member of the Society of Biblical Literature and has sought to introduce a Programme Unit on Animal References in the Bible and Related Literature. He is also a member of the Biblical Archaeology Society, and the American Academy of Religion, primarily with interests in Native American, environmental, and animal issues.
is Tutor for the Cuddesdon School of Theology and Ministry (CSTM) at Ripon College Cuddesdon, Oxford. As Tutor, she oversees the CSTM programme and teaches a variety of subjects, including liturgy, psychology of religion, and ethics. She completed her Bachelor of Science degree in Psychology at George Mason University in the U.S.A., and her MA in the Psychology of Religion at Heythrop College, University of London. The portion of her MA thesis relating to animal welfare, A psychological approach to contradictions between Christian teaching and attitudes towards animals was presented at the 2011 conference of the British Association of Social Anthropology. Jennifer trained for the Church of England ministry on the St Albans and Oxford Ministry Course and was ordained in the Church of England in 2005. She was formerly Chaplain to Jesus College, Oxford. Her review of Trevor Beeson’s The Church’s Other Half: Women’s Ministry appeared in Theology in 2012. She is a Committee Member of the Anglican Society for the Welfare of Animals and editor of their magazine, Animalwatch.
has recently been awarded a PhD by the University of Birmingham for her thesis on Christianity and vegetarianism 1809 – 2009. Her publications include “A Taste of Eden: Modern Christianity and Vegetarianism”, Journal of Ecclesiastical History, Vol. 58, No. 3, July 2007, and “‘Ours is the Food that Eden Knew’: Themes in the Theology and Practice of Modern Christian Vegetarians”, Eating and Believing, Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Vegetarianism and Theology, edited by Rachel Muers and David Grumett, T. & T. Clark, 2008. Encyclopedia entries include: “The Internet” in the Cultural Encyclopedia of Vegetarianism, edited by Margaret Paskar-Pasewicz, ABC-CLIO, 2011, “Vegetarianism in Britain and America” in the Global Guide to Animal Protection, edited by Andrew Linzey, University of Illinois Press, 2013, and “Vegetarianism” in the Encyclopedia of Bioethics , fourth edition, Macmillan, forthcoming. She is a member of the academic advisory board of the Christian Vegetarian Association U.K. (CVAUK). Sam is currently working on a new edited edition of one of the earliest vegetarian domestic manuals Vegetarian Cookery by A Lady (Martha Brotherton) for Manchester University Press. Samantha has worked in communications for both the Vegetarian and Vegan Societies (UK).
is an Associate Professor in the Department of Sociology at Brock University, St. Catharines, Ontario. She teaches classes in the area of Critical Animal Studies, which engages an intersectional approach to “the question of the animal.” As such, Dr Corman’s interdisciplinary scholarship draws on animal rights/liberation, posthumanist, feminist, critical race, labour and environmental theories and practices. Much of her graduate work focused on an analysis of Canadian and U.S. slaughterhouses, with emphasis on the industrialized exploitation of pigs. Her doctoral dissertation, The Ventriloquist’s Burden? Animals, Voice, and Politics analysed voice and its relationship to nonhuman animal subjectivities. This project was inspired in part through her many years as the host and producer of the weekly animal issues radio program, “Animal Voices”, on CIUT 89. FM in Toronto. Her current research interests include animal agency and resistance, theories of abjection, and coalition-building among social justice movements. Dr Corman has been interviewed for Satya, Canadian Journal of Environmental Education, and Striking at the Roots: A Practical Guide to Animal Activism. She was the guest editor for “Animal,” a unique issue of Undercurrents: Journal of Critical Environmental Studies in 2008. Her publications include: “Impossible Subjects: The Figure of the Animal in Paulo Freire’s Pedagogy of the Oppressed”, Journal of Environmental Education, 16, 29-45, 2011, and “Getting Their Hands Dirty: Raccoons, Freegans, and ‘Urban Trash'”, Journal for Critical Animal Studies, LX, 3, 28-61, 2011.
is a doctoral candidate in the Humanities Program at Salve Regina University in Newport, Rhode Island. She holds a CAGS degree in the Humanities from Salve Regina University, a Master of Education degree from Rhode Island College, and a Bachelor of Arts degree from the School of Management at Boston College in Massachusetts. She received her certification as a Director/Supervisor of Curriculum Development from the University of Massachusetts – Boston (BSC). Carol has taught at the elementary, secondary and university levels, the latter at Salve Regina University and most recently at Johnson and Wales University, in the areas of Public Speaking, English, and English as a Second Language. Having spent three years teaching in Nairobi, Kenya at St. Mary’s School (a member of the Conference of British Public Schools), Carol’s life-long interest in animals expanded into the area of ‘wildlife’ conservation. Her dissertation will involve an exploration of past and present ‘wildlife’ conservation programs in East Africa, focusing on their ethical, religious and philosophical perspectives. Carol is a member of the Defenders of Animals organisation, which is committed to the defense of the rights of both companion animals and ‘wildlife’ through education and legislative action. She has testified before the Rhode Island Senate regarding bills which advance the ethical treatment of companion animals. She also works with several animal rescue groups, involving the placement of domestic animals and the legislative action necessary for their well-being and protection.
is a student in the Master of Divinity course at the University of Divinity in Melbourne. She is an aspiring animal theologian and is part-way through a doctoral thesis titled “A Theology of Animal Beauty”. Elizabeth has qualifications in biological science, arts, and education, and has a First Class Honours degree in English Literature from the University of Queensland. Elizabeth’s specific scholarly interests are animal theology; the place and treatment of non-human animals in varying religious traditions; changing understandings of animals across cultures and historical periods; the representation of animals in poetry, film, fine art; and the aesthetics of animals. She is the author of “Ecological Asceticism: Saint Basil the Great in Conversation with John Zizioulas”, in Tjurunga: An Australasian Benedictine Review 84 (Easter 2014), pp. 42-53. Elizabeth’s main advocacy concerns are live animal export; ethical food production; animals as “raw materials” and experimental subjects; animal abuse and neglect. She is a member of the Australian Animal Studies Group and the Animals and Society Institute.
is a barrister and a PhD research student within the School of Social Science and Public Policy at King’s College, London. She was called to the Bar and practised in family law before becoming a Senior Policy Adviser to the Minister of Justice. Additionally she advised the Official Solicitor on Court of Protection matters and led the introduction of a section of The Access to Justice Act. She voluntarily served for fifteen years in public health as a non-executive Director of an NHS Health Authority and member of the Research Ethics Committee. She also sat on an Independent Mental Health Enquiry and worked closely with the HFT charity for the learning disabled. Sally recently completed a Masters Degree in Human Values and Global Ethics at King’s College, London, where she became interested in animal ethics. She was an adviser to the Institute of Global Ethics and a Trustee of the Ethox Foundation. Her current PhD research aims to use her experience to investigate how public policy might better reflect the moral status of animals and includes interviews with global leaders and decision makers. She is particularly interested in the wider probability that our treatment of animals may reflect our attitude to each other and the environment. She is especially concerned to show that our relationship with animals is of such fundamental importance that it must be underpinned with global policy. She is a member of Chatham House, London.
is currently a JSPS postdoctoral research fellow in the Department of Philosophy at Hokkaido University. She graduated both in Philosophy and Law and received her PhD in Philosophy from the University of Valencia. Her doctoral dissertation focused on Martha Nussbaum’s thought and the Capabilities Approach. She has published various articles in peer-reviewed journals and book chapters in academic books, including ‘How to evaluate Justice?’ and ‘La noción plural de sujeto de justicia’ and presented papers at international conferences as University of Tübingen, Hokkaido University, and Trento University/ Complutense University. Currently she is working on a research project on the correlations between capabilities, emotions and values. She is deeply interested in examining the epistemological role of compassion in relation to justice for especially vulnerable groups, in particular non-human animals.
teaches European law, and sport and the law at the University of Limerick, where she is also Course Director for Law and European Studies, and Law Plus. She has published in the areas of drug testing and the rights of athletes, elder law, the regulation of football agents, TV rights in Irish football, EC competition law, and animal welfare in the EU. She is currently co-authoring the third edition of Modern Irish Company Law with Professor Henry Ellis. She graduated with a master’s degree in Law from the University of Limerick in 2002, and is currently pursuing a PhD through the School of Law, at Queen’s University Belfast. Her doctoral work combines her interests in sport, law, and animal welfare by examining the regulation of animal cruelty in sport. She is examining animal welfare from a socio-legal perspective focusing on the development of animal related legislation in Ireland and Britain, and its application to animals involved in fox hunting, hare coursing, greyhound racing, and dog fighting.
is a Postdoctoral Research Associate at the Department of Philosophy at Rice University in Houston, Texas. He graduated from Rice University with a PhD in Philosophy in 2016. His doctoral dissertation defends a novel account of the wrongness of killing, according to which it is no less seriously wrong to kill a non-human conscious animal than it is to kill a human being. He further hold Master’s degrees in Philosophy (Rice University, 2014) and Physics (Heidelberg University, 2009), and was a Visiting Student in Philosophy at the University of Oxford, and at the University of Ulm in Germany during 2004-5. While in Heidelberg, he organised Germany’s first interdisciplinary lecture series on animal rights. He edited the papers from the series in a book entitled Tierrechte – Eine interdisziplinäre Herausforderung, published by Harald Fischer Verlag in 2007. The book contributed to a more thoughtful public and academic debate about animals in the German-speaking world. His other relevant publications include ‘Innocent Threats and the Moral Problem of Carnivorous Animals’, Journal of Applied Philosophy 29 (2012), pp. 146-159. Co-authored with Tibor R. Machan, the article addresses the issue of predation and what it may imply morally. He has lectured and published in numerous countries, including Kenya, Morocco, Bangladesh, India, the Czech Republic, the Netherlands, France, Portugal, Canada as well as in Germany and the USA on animal ethics and other topics in moral philosophy. His special interests are in Moral Philosophy (especially Animal Ethics and Global Justice), Political Philosophy, Consciousness, Metaphysics, Mathematics, and Theoretical Physics.
has a Bachelor of Arts degree in Philosophy from Kenyon College in Gambier, Ohio, where he was the recipient of the Virgil C. Aldrich prize awarded for dedication to, and excellence in, the study of philosophy. He spent a year studying Philosophy and Animal Ethics at Mansfield College, Oxford University, and was also a Committee Member of the Oxford University Animal Ethics Society. Max has worked as a policy analyst intern at the International Fund for Animal Welfare (IFAW) where he focused on the source of lion meat sold in the United States as well as noise pollution in the ocean and its effect on whale communication and migration. He has been an Existentialism teaching assistant for the Johns Hopkins Center for Talented Youth during the summers of 2012 and 2013. Max has reviewed Timothy Pachirat’s Every Twelve Seconds: Industrialized Slaughter and the Politics of Sight for the Journal of Animal Ethics, and is currently working on a paper on sentiency in fish and its moral implications.
is a PhD candidate in Divinity at St John’s College, Cambridge. He graduated first in philosophy with First Class Honours from the University of Melbourne and spent a year at St Peter’s College, Oxford, reading philosophy and theology. He holds a Master of Arts in Divinity from the University of Chicago, where he pursued his interest in philosophical and theological ethics, as well as ecclesiastical history. His recent academic work on non-human animals includes an article developing Schweitzer’s concept of reverence for life in and a comparative study of the place of creatures and creation in Islam and Christianity. He also wrote a brief history of abstinence from meat in the Christian tradition, which was published in the Journal of Animal Ethics (Fall 2016, 6(2)).
is a Senior Bioethicist (contractor) in the Division of AIDS (DAIDS), the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), National Institutes of Health (NIH) in the United States. Prior to coming to DAIDS in 2011, he was a health science policy analyst (contractor) in the Clinical Research Policy Analysis and Coordination (CRpac) Program, Office of Biotechnology Activities (OBA), Offices of Science Policy (OSP), NIH. In addition to his work in human research ethics, he writes on our obligations to non-human animals, specifically in the areas of animal research ethics and animal agriculture. He received a bachelor’s degree in music performance from Connecticut College in 2007, with a minor in philosophy, and a master’s degree in bioethics from the University of Pennsylvania in 2009. His affiliation with the Oxford Centre represents his own views and not those of the NIH or any other part of the U.S. Federal Government.
teaches Classics at St John’s School, Leatherhead, and has recently been appointed Assistant Master in Classics at Winchester College. She was awarded a DPhil from University College, Oxford in 2012. In 2008 she was awarded a Masters in Classics from the University of Oxford with distinction.Previously, she gained a double first in Literae Humaniores from Oriel College, Oxford, and at finals came in the top ten of her year, receiving the Gaisford essay prize from the faculty for the best undergraduate thesis in Classics. She has been awarded numerous other prizes, including the Gibbs Prize in Classics, the Lady Norma Dalrymple-Champneys Prize, and the C. E. Stevens scholarship for travel, as well as being awarded full AHRC funding to complete her MSt in Classics at Oxford. She was College Lecturer in Classics at Trinity College, Oxford, in 2011-2012. She has published on several aspects of Greek poetry in Ramus and Harvard Studies in Classical Philology, contributed to the forthcoming Blackwell-Wiley Virgil Encyclopedia, and edited a newly-discovered papyrus of Homer’s Iliad for the Oxyrhynchus collection, which will be published in a forthcoming volume of the Oxyrhynchusjournal; she was employed part-time as a cataloguer for the Oxyrhynchus collection in Oxford which involves identifying unpublished papyri and contributing to a new database. Her interests include Greco-Roman attitudes to, and representations of, animals in literature and philosophy, as well as the role of the animal in 19th- and early-20th-century children’s literature. She was a founding member and President of the Oxford University Animal Ethics Society.
works at the Beazley Archive, University of Oxford. He is a graduate of Christ Church, Oxford, where he was awarded a first class BA in Classical Archaeology and Ancient History and an MSt in Classical Archaeology. As an undergraduate he received the Fell exhibition at Christ Church, and Oxford University’s Thomas Whitcombe Greene prize for Classical Art and Archaeology. After his BA he spent two years working for pioneering cosmetics company Lush. In 2013 he obtained a PhD in Classics at the University of Reading for a thesis on the iconography of animal skin garments in Archaic Greek art. While a PhD student he authored the chapter on Animals in Classical Art for the forthcoming Oxford Handbook of Animals in Classical Thought and Life (ed. Gordon Campbell) and completed the sourcebook Animals in the Classical World: Ethical Perspectives from Greek and Roman Texts for the Palgrave Macmillan Animal Ethics series, published in 2013. His research interests include depictions of animals and half-animals in literature and art from the prehistoric era to the present day, particularly in regard to ethical responses to animal imagery. He hopes to pursue extensive research on the semantics of animal imagery in Classical art, particularly on animals and the articulation of power in Roman public art; he convened the panel The Art History of the Animal for the Association of Art Historians conference in April 2013. He was a founding member of the Oxford University Animal Ethics Society, and has taught at the Universities of Oxford, Reading and Winchester.
is the Principal Law Clerk for the Honorable James P. Sullivan in Supreme Court, Criminal Term in Brooklyn, New York. She previously worked as a criminal defence attorney for the Brooklyn Defender Services and the Legal Aid Society where she conducted a variety of trials in state court. She has recently completed a Masters of Arts Degree in History at Hunter College in New York. In her thesis entitled “Life Among the Savages: Animal Advocacy in Nineteenth-Century America,” she explored the historical significance of the early animal advocacy movement and considered how it complemented other social movements during this period. She has worked on various publications on behalf of the Animal Law Committee of the New York City Bar. She wrote a comment supporting proposed Bill H.R. 4269 (“The Best Practices Act”) an act proposing a complete phase-in of human-based training methods to train members of the Armed Forces in the treatment of severe combat injuries. She is presently co-writing a comment on a revised version of the bill. She assisted in the preparation of “Reporting Suspected Animal Cruelty and Neglect in New York State” and contributed to the search and seizure section of the legal manual on animal fighting entitled “Prosecuting Animal Fighting and Live Depictions: Legal Issues under New York and Federal Law.”
Her research interests include the study of the commonalities between animal advocacy and other nineteenth-century reform movements in the United States. She is presently working on a paper entitled “Henry Bergh and the ‘Cost of Cruelty’” to be delivered at a conference in April at the University of North Texas entitled “Moral Cultures of Food: Access, Production and Consumption from Past to Present.”
is a fourth year doctoral candidate in Philosophy at the University of Toronto. Before coming to Toronto, he studied philosophy and international relations at Calvin College, Michigan. His research centres on bringing important work in animal ethics to bear on the realm of political theory. In his dissertation, he argues that protecting and upholding the rights of non-human animals requires not only that humans end many exploitative practices involving other animals, but also that we radically rethink how other animals exist in, and relate to, our legal and political institutions. He is the co-author, with Nathan Nobis, of ‘A Moral Argument for Veganism’ (forthcoming in Routledge’s Philosophy Comes to Dinner: Arguments on the Ethics of Eating) and has work forthcoming in the Journal of Animal Ethics.
is currently working toward a Bachelor of Arts degree in Philosophy from Kenyon College in Gambier, Ohio, and has spent the 2013-2014 at Mansfield College, Oxford, where he has studied Ancient Philosophy and Animal Ethics and received the Best Visiting Student award for Hilary Term. He was also a Committee Member of the Oxford University Animal Ethics Society in his time there and was the leader of the Clean Up Cruelty Campaign for Oxford Students for Animals (OSFA). He has written a forthcoming review of Alistair Holden’s Animals in the Classical World: Ethical Perspectives from Greek and Roman Texts for the Journal for Animal Ethics and will be presenting at the Oxford Summer School for Religion and Animal Protection on the role of Venus in the Roman poet Lucretius’ De Rerum Natura and her connection to animal ethics in the work. His interests include Epicureanism, Stoicism, and Neoplatonism, particularly with regard their views on animal ethics, the psychology behind the change from a meat-eating to a vegetarian or vegan diet, and American Transcendentalism and Pragmatism as they relate to the philosophy of natural science.
teaches English for Academic Purposes at Tel Aviv University, Oranim Academic College of Education and the Ruppin Academic Center School of Marine Sciences. She has illustrated and written about animals for various publications, and her work was featured in the prestigious Leigh Yawkey Woodson Birds in Art exhibit in 1991. She earned her MA in Comparative Literature (contemporary Spanish, English and Hebrew) with honours at UCLA in 1981. Since then, she has focused on nature poets and authors straddling science and humanities, especially Pablo Neruda, Robinson Jeffers and Rachel Carson. The majority of her endeavors involve animal welfare, environmental education, biology, and the arts; she places a strong emphasis on ecocritical studies and ecocinema, or literature, art and film with environmental themes. She actively participates in a research forum on the Animal-Human Bond at the Tel Aviv University Porter School of Environmental Studies. Her publications include: “The Early Origins of the Animal Rights Movement” in Who’s Talking Now? Multispecies Relations from Human and Animals’ Point of View (Inter-Disciplinary Press, 2015) and “An Ecocritical Approach to Cruelty in the Laboratory”, in the Journal of Animal Ethics (2016).
is visiting assistant professor in religious ethics at Siena College in Latham, NY. His recent publications include Christian Theology and the Status of Animals: The Dominant Tradition and Its Alternatives in the Palgrave Macmillan Animal Ethics Series (2014) and Preservation and Protest: Theological Foundations for an Eco-Eschatological Ethics (Fortress Press, 2014), as well as a number of articles. Currently, he is working on a manuscript for Fortress Press on Christian theology and the origin of natural evil. His central research interest is nonhuman theological ethics, however, he also has publications in the areas of interreligious dialogue and feminism.
is a PhD Candidate in Animal Law at the University of Oviedo, Spain. Her main field of research is constitutional and criminal law enforcement of animal protection. She is a member of the research group on legal status of animals at the Autonomous University of Barcelona. Her publications include, “Animales como víctimas sexuales”, El Diario, 2015, “La explotación sexual de los animales en el Código Penal Español”, Derecho Animal, 2015 and “Delito de maltrato animal: Empleado municipal mata a un gato con una pala. Comentario a la Sentencia 12/2015, de 12 de enero, del Juzgado de lo Penal nº 4 de Valladolid”, Derecho Animal, 2015. She is a pioneering animal lawyer, who founded the first Animal Law Firm in the region of Asturias, Spain. She has worked as a pro bono consultant with several Spanish animal rights charities. In 2012 she established the non-profit organisation Observatorio Justicia y Defensa Animal, which works for the enforcement of the animal law in Spain, prosecuting animal abuse, checking the legality of shows and festivals that use animals, and promoting the defense of animals and laws on animal protection.
is a doctoral candidate at the School of Geography and the Environment at the University of Oxford. She has an MA in Philosophy from Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado, and an MS in Anthrozoology from Canisius College, Buffalo, New York. She is an editor of the collection Trash Animals: How We Live with Nature’s Filthy, Feral, Invasive and Unwanted Species (University of Minnesota Press, 2013) that offers new perspectives on ethical engagement with so-called ‘pest’ species. Current research for her doctoral thesis focuses on street cattle welfare in India, which is an extension of her previous research on cattle welfare in various cultural contexts in different parts of the world. Some of this research on cattle welfare in Spain, India, Argentina, the United States and England can be read on the blog worldcowgirl.wordpress.com, which received a 2012 Culture and Animals Foundation grant. During the 2013-2014 school year she served as vice president of the Oxford University Animal Ethics society. Current writing interests combine critical animal studies with cultural geography.
received her DPhil from the Free University of Brussels and the University of Lyon (Jean Moulin-Lyon III) in 2015. Her doctoral dissertation aims to reconsider the history of zoos by paying attention, from the early nineteenth century to the present times, to human gestures and practices, their influences on animals, and the dynamics (or the breakage of dynamics) between humans and zoo animals. She is currently a Wiener-Anspach Postdoctoral Fellow at the African Studies Centre of the University of Oxford and an academic visitor at St. Antony’s College. Her new research project concerns the (post)colonial management of wildlife in the Congo, Uganda and Kenya. She is also a scientific collaborator at MMC, Free University of Brussels, and an associate researcher at LARHRA, University Jean Moulin-Lyon III. She has published several articles on the history of zoos and the colonial management of free-living animals in peer-reviewed journals (Revue historique, and Revue de synthèse) and she is currently in the process of completing a book based on her doctoral dissertation.
is a lawyer and PhD candidate in Law at São Paulo University, Brazil. His PhD thesis concerns the moral and legal status of animals. He was awarded his Bachelor of Laws in 2004, and his Master of Laws in 2008, from São Paulo University. He participated in Yale Law School Linkages Program in 2003. In 2015 he founded a study group on animal ethics in São Paulo University Law School (Grupo de Estudos de Ética e Direito Animal – GEDA) which he currently coordinates. In his masters degree, he focused on normative theory and human rights, especially the liberal-egalitarian argument and his book John Rawls (Juruá, 2011) explores these themes. He has written papers on human rights, philosophy of law, private law and victims´ rights. His paper “A Rawlsian Case against Animal Experimentation” is forthcoming in The Ethical Case Against Animal Experimentation.
graduated from the University of Glasgow Veterinary College in 1971 with a degree in Veterinary Medicine and Surgery. From 1971 to 1980 she worked in private veterinary practice in Glasgow, Epsom, and the Isle of Arran, and, from 1981 to 1986, she worked for the PDSA in Nottingham. In 1986 she moved to Cheshire, where she did occasional locum work in small animal practice. In 1989, she retired from practice. A heightened awareness of environmental problems – in particular, the loss of biodiversity and global animal welfare problems, the discovery of Peter Singer’s book Animal Liberation, and the exposé of some of the experiments which were being done on animals in the name of science predisposed to her returning to university in 1996. In 2000, she graduated with a BA in Philosophy and Environmental Management from the University of Keele. In 2001, she was awarded an MA in Values and the Environment from the University of Lancaster, with a dissertation entitled ‘The Relevance of Chaos to Environmental Ethics’. She returned to the University of Lancaster to research the relevance of the study of complex adaptive systems to environmental ethics – with particular focus on the epistemological basis for the use of animals in scientific experimentation. The study was multidisciplinary in nature, and she graduated with an MPhil in Philosophy in 2011. Her thesis was entitled ‘Animal Experimentation, Complexity and Animal Ethics’. She has presented at various institutions, including the University of Lancaster and at the Minding Animals Conference in Utrecht.
is a social worker who lives and works in country north-east Tasmania, Australia. He has spent most of his life in country communities, and animals have always been part and parcel of the wider Ryan household. In 1993 he graduated with a Bachelor of Social Work with First Class Honours degree from James Cook University in Townsville, North Queensland, Australia. His honours thesis, the first in social work concerning animals, was entitled ‘The Widening Circle: Should Social Work Concern Itself with Nonhuman Animal Rights?’ In late 2006, he was awarded a PhD in social work by Edith Cowan University in Bunbury, Western Australia, with a doctoral thesis, the first in the discipline, titled ‘Social Work, Independent Realities, and the Circle of Moral Considerability: Respect for Humans, Animals and the Natural World’.
Dr Ryan’s publications include Animals and Social Work: A Moral Introduction (2011), and his edited Animals in Social Work: Why and How They Matter (2014), both published by Palgrave Macmillan as part of their Animal Ethics Book Series. He has also published ‘Social Work and Nonhuman Animal Rights’, Northern Radius,1(1), November 1993, and a chapter in Environmental Social Work (Routledge, 2012). Dr Ryan’s doctoral theses and publications represent pioneering contributions to the discipline of social work; they present cogent arguments for the inclusion of animals within social work’s moral and conceptual frameworks, and articulate a revised social work code of ethics that has profound theoretical and practical consequences for the discipline and its practitioners.
is a professor in the Department of Humanities at Dawson College in Montreal, Canada, where he teaches courses in environmental and animal ethics. He graduated with a BA (First Class Honours) in Political Science from McGill University in 2004. He won a British Chevening scholarship to the University of Oxford gaining an MPhil in Political Theory in 2007. His MPhil dissertation examined the different modes of political communication used by Peter Singer and Martin Luther King, Jr. in delineating the boundaries of the moral community. He subsequently completed a research internship at the Martin Luther King Jr., Research and Education Institute at Stanford University in 2008, where he provided research assistance for two of Professor Clayborne Carson’s publications. His main research interests are the moral status of non-human animals, and the social movements working towards the expansion of our sphere of moral consideration, including the animal rights movement. His most recent research has focused on the psychological conditions that are likely to make non-academics receptive to the demands of these social movements. For instance, he spent the summer of 2012 at Stanford University’s Center for Compassion and Altruism Research and Education (CCARE) in order to complete the Compassion Cultivation Training course and to study the effects of contemplative practices on compassionate behaviour. He is the author of an article on the legal rights of great apes for The Global Guide to Animal Protection (forthcoming from the University of Illinois Press). He was also involved with the political aspect of the animal rights movement during his stint as a House of Commons researcher in the United Kingdom in 2003, where he worked on behalf of Mrs Julie Morgan MP on an ultimately successful bill making it illegal to hunt with hounds. In his efforts to educate the public about the importance of making ethical food choices, he co-launched the Quebec Meatless Mondays campaign in 2010. He also regularly collaborates with the Montreal Vegetarian Association to organise public events and to publish online documents on issues relevant to animal ethics.
is pursuing his PhD in Early American and Atlantic History at the College of William and Mary. He also serves as an editorial apprentice at the Omohundro Institute of Early American History and Culture. He earned his bachelor’s degree in history from Rider University, and has spent the last five years teaching World History at Burlington Township High School, in Burlington, New Jersey. His research focuses on the development and evolution of animal ethics in the Early Modern Atlantic World, with particular emphasis on the culture of sensibility and its concomitant model of moral masculinity. His latest publication ‘Animals made Americans Human: Sentient Creatures and the Creation of Early America’s Moral Sensibility,’ is due to be published by the Journal of Animal Ethics, Vol. 2, Fall 2012. He was also recently commissioned by The Encyclopedia of Greater Philadelphia to write an essay on ‘Animal Protection’.
Is a Juris Doctor from Monash University currently working in the field of legal research. Previously, she was awarded a Bachelor of Arts from the University of Queensland, majoring in Philosophy and English Literature. She also studied Animal Law as a visiting student at Bond University. Jordan has written numerous articles on animal topics, including free range labelling and consumer law rights, a case note concerning whaling in the Antarctic, empathy in the human and animal rights movements, and how meaningful change for animals can be created via international law mechanisms. She has also co-written various papers on animal welfare and human rights law with Stephen Keim, SC. Jordan has recently undertaken work with the Environmental Defenders’ Office, drafting and editing material for their online legal handbook. In 2012, Jordan was awarded first prize in the NSW Young Lawyers Animal Law Essay Competition and also the second prize in the Australian Legal Philosophy Student Association Essay Competition. As a law student, Jordan volunteered in a family and animal law firm, as well as her local community legal centre. During her undergraduate years, she undertook an internship with People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) in Manila. Her present academic research focusses on how the animal law movement can be furthered through an international law framework.
is a PhD candidate at the Department of Political Science, Stockholm University. A long-time animal rights advocate and social activist, he has been active in the Swedish animal rights movement since the mid-90s, and served as the President and Director of Animal Rights Sweden (Djurens Rätt), Sweden’s largest animal rights organization, from 2003 to 2007. His research interest centres on the reproduction of speciesist ideology in political discourses of the human-animal relationship, especially how animal ‘welfare’ and ‘protection’ policies often serve to legitimate continued nonhuman oppression. His first publication is: ‘Protecting the Animals? An Abolitionist Critique of Animal Welfarism and Green Ideology’, in: Ragnhild Sollund (ed) Global Harms: Ecological Crime and Speciesism (New York: Nova Science Publishers, forthcoming in 2008).
is Senior Policy and Legal Resource Adviser to World Animal Net, where she also serves as the organization’s main representative at the United Nations. An independent legislative consultant in the field of animal protection, she formerly served as Assistant Legislative Counsel to the Humane Society of the United States and Animal Welfare Fellow in the United States Senate (office of Senator Mary Landrieu, D-LA). Townsend received her Juris Doctorate from Georgetown Law and her Bachelor of Arts degree from Stanford University with distinction. She currently serves as Diversity Subcommittee Chair of the Animal Law Committee within the American Bar Association’s Tort, Trial, and Insurance Practice Section, as was a former Student Vice- Chair of the same committee. Active in her faith community and interested in the extension of compassionate stewardship toward animals within ecology, she is a member of a local faith-based integrity of creation committee, and was named a 2012 Young Adult Eco-Justice Fellow by the National Council of Churches. Townsend formerly served as an Associate Editor of the Journal of Animal Law at Michigan State University College of Law, and her research has been published in the Journal of Animal Ethics, and The Handbook of Practical Animal Ethics (forthcoming).
is a PhD candidate and Teaching Fellow in the Department of Philosophy and Religion at the University of North Texas. He received his BA in Philosophy from the University of Louisiana at Lafayette, and his MA in Philosophy from Colorado State University, where he wrote his thesis on invasive species management from an animal ethics perspective. Joey’s areas of specialization include animal, environmental, and food ethics, as well as the intersection of these areas. Within his work on animal ethics, Joey has focused much of his attention on the role of religion and religious beliefs in attitudes toward and treatment of animals, particularly regarding Indian philosophico-religious traditions. His doctoral dissertation, the working title of which is “A Critique of the Food/Drug Distinction,” examines the ontological categories of “food” and “drug” through various hermeneutic lenses, evaluating the advantages and disadvantages of different ways of interpreting both the relationship between these categories as well as individual substances. Joey has published articles on the invasivore movement and animal/environmental pragmatism in the Encyclopedia of Food and Agricultural Ethics. He also works as a Programme Coordinator on a number of projects for the nonprofit animal advocacy organisation Farm Forward, including education initiatives with Jonathan Safran Foer, author of Eating Animals.
is a doctoral candidate at the School of Law in the University of Essex. Her research addresses the efficacy of regulatory licensing regimes as a means of guaranteeing effective animal protection in the U.K. She has worked for over a decade in the NGO sector, focusing in large part on the conservation and care of non-human primates and as a campaigner on issues surrounding the captivity of non-domesticated animals. Her publications include: “Making It Up As They Go Along: Marius and the Zoo Industry’s Inconsistent Approach to Self-Regulation”, Journal of Animal Welfare Law, March 2014; “For An End to Pinioning: The Case Against the Legal Mutilation of Birds”, Journal of Animal Ethics, Spring 2014 and “Regulating cruelty: The licensing of the use of wild animals in circuses”, Journal of Animal Welfare Law, January 2013.